Boston, MA Profile: Facts & Data


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Boston, Massachusetts - Basic Facts

The City of Boston is the largest city in Massachusetts with a population of 693,251 as of July 1, 2023. Boston ranks in the upper quartile for Population Density and Diversity Index when compared to the other cities, towns and Census Designated Places (CDPs) in Massachusetts. See peer rankings below.

The primary coordinate point for Boston is located at latitude 42.3584 and longitude -71.0598 in Suffolk County. The formal boundaries for the City of Boston encompass a land area of 48.37 sq. miles and a water area of 41.28 sq. miles. Suffolk County is in the Eastern time zone (GMT -5).

The City of Boston has a C5 Census Class Code which indicates an active incorporated place that is independent of any county subdivision and serves as a county subdivision equivalent. It also has a Functional Status Code of "A" which identifies an active government providing primary general-purpose functions.

Jump to... (On This Page!)
  1. Boston 2023 Demographic Data
  2. Growth Rates for Boston (Historical & 5-Year Forecast)
  3. Peer Comparisons (Rank and Percentile)
  1. Neighborhoods Demographics (Home Values, Household Income, etc.)
  2. Massachusetts Research Tools (Easy Tools & Current Data)
  3. Massachusetts Data Comparison Tool - 2023 Demographics

Boston, MA Data & Demographics (As of July 1, 2023)


Total Population 693,251 (100%)
Population in Households 646,677 (93.3%)
Population in Families 396,938 (57.3%)
Population in Group Quarters1 46,574 ( 6.7%)
Population Density 14,341
Diversity Index2 80


Median Household Income $83,368
Average Household Income $133,428
% of Income for Mortgage4 51%
Per Capita Income $55,941
Wealth Index5 94
Socioeconomic Status Index6 Moderate (45.3)


Total HU (Housing Units) 311,453 (100%)
Owner Occupied HU 98,551 (31.6%)
Renter Occupied HU 190,028 (61.0%)
Vacant Housing Units 22,874 ( 7.3%)
Median Home Value $708,930
Average Home Value $818,905
Housing Affordability Index3 50


Total Households 288,579
Average Household Size 2.24
Family Households 128,508
Average Family Size 3.00
  1. Group Quarters - a place where people live or stay in a group living arrangement. Includes college residents halls, nursing facilities, military barracks, and correctional facilities.
  2. The Diversity Index is a scale of 0 to 100 that represents the likelihood that two persons, chosen at random from the same area, belong to different races or ethnic groups. If an area's entire population belongs to one race AND one ethnic group, then the area has zero diversity. An area's diversity index increases to 100 when the population is evenly divided into two or more race/ethnic groups.
  3. The Housing Affordability Index base is 100 and represents a balance point where a resident with a median household income can normally qualify to purchase a median price home. Values above 100 indicate increased affordability, while values below 100 indicate decreased affordability.
  4. The % of Income for Mortgage quantifies the percentage of median household income dedicated to mortgage payments on a home priced at the median value (assuming a 30-year mortgage and a 20% down payment).
  5. The Wealth Index is based on a number of indicators of affluence including average household income and average net worth, but it also includes the value of material possessions and resources. It represents the wealth of the area relative to the national level. Values above or below 100 represent above-average wealth or below-average wealth compared to the national level.
  6. The Socioeconomic Index ranges from zero (lowest relative status) to 100 (highest relative status). This measure quantifies disparities in social position of an area's inhabitants and is built from a broad range of demographic, housing, and socioeconomic inputs. More information on this measure can be found in Esri's SEI tutorial.


2020-2023 2023-2028
Population 0.79% 0.32%
Households 0.99% 0.45%
Families   0.43%
Median Household Income   3.34%
Per Capita Income   3.04%
Owner Occupied HU   0.72%

Boston, MA - Peer Comparisons by Rank and Percentile

The table below compares Boston to the other 248 incorporated cities, towns and CDPs in Massachusetts by rank and percentile using July 1, 2023 data. The location Ranked # 1 has the highest value. A location that ranks higher than 75% of its peers would be in the 75th percentile of the peer group.

Variable Description Rank Percentile
Total Population # 1 100th
Population Density # 5 98th
Median Household Income # 145 42nd
Housing Affordability Index # 31 13th
Per Capita Income # 108 57th
Diversity Index # 8 97th

Additional comparisons and rankings can be made with a VERY EASY TO USE Massachusetts Census Data Comparison Tool.

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